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Config Sources#

Custom ConfigSource#

It’s possible to create a custom ConfigSource as specified in MicroProfile Config.

With a Custom ConfigSource it is possible to read additional configuration values and add them to the Config instance in a defined ordinal. This allows overriding values from other sources or falling back to other values.

A custom ConfigSource requires an implementation of org.eclipse.microprofile.config.spi.ConfigSource or org.eclipse.microprofile.config.spi.ConfigSourceProvider. Each implementation requires registration via the ServiceLoader mechanism, either in META-INF/services/org.eclipse.microprofile.config.spi.ConfigSource or META-INF/services/org.eclipse.microprofile.config.spi.ConfigSourceProvider files.

Consider a simple in-memory ConfigSource:

package org.acme.config;

import org.eclipse.microprofile.config.spi.ConfigSource;

import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.Map;
import java.util.Set;

public class InMemoryConfigSource implements ConfigSource {
    private static final Map<String, String> configuration = new HashMap<>();

    static {
        configuration.put("my.prop", "1234");

    public int getOrdinal() {
        return 275;

    public Set<String> getPropertyNames() {
        return configuration.keySet();

    public String getValue(final String propertyName) {
        return configuration.get(propertyName);

    public String getName() {
        return InMemoryConfigSource.class.getSimpleName();

And registration in:


The InMemoryConfigSource will be ordered between the System properties config source, and the Environment variables config source due to the 350 ordinal.

In this case, my.prop from InMemoryConfigSource will only be used if the Config instance is unable to find a value in System Properties, ignoring all the other lower ordinal config sources.


Another way to create a ConfigSource is via the SmallRye Config io.smallrye.config.ConfigSourceFactory API. The difference between the SmallRye Config factory and the standard way to create a ConfigSource as specified in MicroProfile Config, is the factory ability to provide a context with access to the current configuration.

Each implementation of io.smallrye.config.ConfigSourceFactory requires registration via the ServiceLoader mechanism in the META-INF/services/io.smallrye.config.ConfigSourceFactory file.

package org.acme.config;

import java.util.Collections;
import java.util.OptionalInt;

import org.eclipse.microprofile.config.spi.ConfigSource;

import io.smallrye.config.ConfigSourceContext;
import io.smallrye.config.ConfigSourceFactory;
import io.smallrye.config.ConfigValue;
import io.smallrye.config.PropertiesConfigSource;

public class URLConfigSourceFactory implements ConfigSourceFactory {
    public Iterable<ConfigSource> getConfigSources(final ConfigSourceContext context) {
        final ConfigValue value = context.getValue("config.url");
        if (value == null || value.getValue() == null) {
            return Collections.emptyList();

        try {
            return Collections.singletonList(new PropertiesConfigSource(new URL(value.getValue())));
        } catch (IOException e) {
            throw new RuntimeException(e);

    public OptionalInt getPriority() {
        return OptionalInt.of(290);

And registration in:


By implementing io.smallrye.config.ConfigSourceFactory, a list of ConfigSource may be provided via the Iterable<ConfigSource> getConfigSources(ConfigSourceContext context) method. The ConfigSourceFactory may also assign a priority by overriding the method OptionalInt getPriority(). The priority value is used to sort multiple io.smallrye.config.ConfigSourceFactory (if found). Higher the value, higher the priority.


The io.smallrye.config.ConfigSourceFactory priority does not affect the ConfigSource ordinal. These are sorted independently.

When the Factory is initializing, the provided ConfigSourceContext may call the method ConfigValue getValue(String name). This method looks up configuration names in all ConfigSources that were already initialized by the Config instance, including sources with lower ordinals than the ones defined in the ConfigSourceFactory. This means that a Config instance is initialized in two steps: first all ConfigSource and ConfigSourceProvider and then the ConfigSourceFactory. Only configuation values found in the first step are avaible to the `ConfigSourceFactory.

The ConfigSource list provided by a ConfigSourceFactory is not taken into consideration to configure other sources produced by a lower priority ConfigSourceFactory.

Override ConfigSource ordinal#

The special configuration property name config_ordinal can be set in any ConfigSource to override its default ordinal.

For instance, setting the system property -Dconfig_ordinal=200 will override the ordinal for the System properties config source and move it to be looked up after the Environment Variables config source.


The PropertiesConfigSource creates a ConfigSource from Java Properties, Map<String, String> objects or a .properties file (referenced by its URL).

Config Value Properties#

The ConfigValuePropertiesConfigSource a ConfigSource from Java Properties, Map<String, String> objects or a .properties file (referenced by its URL) with support for io.smallrye.config.ConfigValue.


The DotEnvConfigSourceProvider create a ConfigSource from a .env file.